India is an agrarian country with around 82% of its people depending directly or indirectly upon agriculture. As per 2021, the agriculture sector contributes 21% of all over India’s GDP. Around 41.59% of total people are associated with agriculture as agricultural labour in the year 2021.
Farmers suicide in India refers to the national disaster since 1970, often by drinking pesticides due to their inability to repay loans from private landlords and banks. Best MBA Colleges in Bangalore accepting PGCET
National crime records bureau of India reported that 2,96,400+ Indian farmers committed suicide from 1995.Out of these 60,700 farmers suicide reported from the state of Maharashtra since 1995 and the remaining farmers are from Odisha, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Madhyapradesh, Gujarat, Chattisgarh, Tamilnadu and kerala.
The farmer's suicide is quietly decreased from 18,200+ in 2004 to 5,600+ in 2014. Whereas suicide rates in India ranged between 1.4 & 1.8 per 1lakh total population over a 10 year period. Whereas the average suicide is more than 10 farmers per day.
Whereas farmers suicide accounts for 11.2% of all suicides in India.
As per historical records, farmers suicide is related to frustration revolves and high mortality rate among farmers in India, particularly cash crop farmers. Frustration among cotton farmers was low price, inability to repay loans, high land taxes which leads to Deccan riots during the 18th century.
High rates of farmers suicide in Andhrapradesh during 1993 and its relationship to farming size and productivity.
In 1996, Ganapathi and venkobarao analyzed suicides in parts of Tamilnadu. They recommended distribution of Organophosphorus compounds should be restricted.
Similarly, Hegde studied rural suicides in villages of parts of Karnataka over the period of 1962 – 1970.
The best reporting about farmers suicide in India began in the mid of 1990s, particularly by Balagummi Sainath.
In the 2000s this issue gained international attention.
Various initiatives by the Indian government.
The national crime records bureau has been collecting and publishing statistics of suicide for India since the 1950s.
As per 2015 & 2018, 12,000 farmers committed suicide in Maharashtra.
States affected by farmers suicide in Maharashtra, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Madhyapradesh, Gujarat, Chattisgarh, Tamilnadu and Kerala.
REASON: Various reasons have been offered to explain why farmers commit suicide in India, It includes,
- Natural disasters
- Failure of crops due to nutrient deficiencies, unusual use of pesticides, fungicides and herbicides
- Financial issues
- Family problems
- Chronic illness
- Price crash
- Failure of borewell
- Losses in non-farm activities
- Property disputes
- Use of genetically modified crops ( eg. crop loss after the introduction of Bt. Cotton, Bt. Brinjal)
- Severe drought
- Unavailability of subsidies and funds
- Misdirection of government
The government-appointed no. of enquiry teams to look into the problems and causes of farmers suicide and farm-related distress.
In 2006, former Prime minister Manmohan Singh visited Vidarbha(Maharashtra) and promised a package of 110 billion INR.
- In 2006, the government of India identified 31 districts in 4 states( South India) incidence of farmers suicide offered special rehabilitation package was launched to mitigate the distress of these farmers, the cash assistance provided from the national relief fund.
- Agricultural debt relief scheme 2008 – Kisan credit card
- Maharashtra bill to regulate farmer loan terms – 2008
- Maharashtra relief package 2010 – The state government of Maharashtra made it illegal through village farmers self-help groups to repay financial loans that 50% will be paid by the farmers and 50% by the government and also they launch alternate income opportunities like dairy, poultry and sericulture.
- Kerala farmers debt relief commission amendment 2012
- The government of India launched a special livestock sector and fishery package for farmers in suicide-prone regions of south India.
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