Posted by Dr Rajasulochana A.L. On 11/10/2021 09:43:05

The term "tissue culture" was coined by American pathologist Montrose Thomas Burrows

Tissue culture is the growth of tissues or cells in an artificial medium separate from the parent organism. This technique is also called micropropagation. This is typically facilitated via the use of a liquid, semi-solid, or solid growth media, such as broth or agar. Tissue culture commonly refers to the culture of animal cells and tissues, with the more specific term plant tissue culture being used for plants.

Different techniques in plant tissue culture may offer certain advantages over traditional methods of propagation, including:

  • The production of exact copies of plants that produce particularly good flowers, fruits, or have other desirable traits.
  • To quickly produce mature plants.
  • The production of multiples of plants in the absence of seeds or necessary pollinators to produce seeds.
  • The regeneration of whole plants from plant cells that have been genetically modified.
  • The production of plants from seeds that otherwise have very low chances of germinating and growing, i.e. orchids and Nepenthes.
  • To clean particular plants of viral and other infections and to quickly multiply these plants as 'cleaned stock' for horticulture and agriculture.

Plant tissue culture relies on the fact that many plant cells have the ability to regenerate a whole plant (totipotency). Single cells, plant cells without cell walls (protoplasts), pieces of leaves, stems or roots can often be used to generate a new plant on culture media given the required nutrients and plant hormones.

Techniques used for plant tissue culture in vitro:

Some of the techniques are (1) Preparation of Culture Medium (2) Sterilization Procedure (3) Preparation of Aseptic Plants (4) Aseptic Techniques and (5) Incubation of Culture.

Types of tissue culture:

  1. Callus culture
  2. Organ culture
  3. Single-cell culture
  4. Suspension culture
  5. Embryo, another, pollen culture.       
  6. Somatic embryogenesis 
  7. Explant culture.

Advantages of tissue culture:

  • In a relatively short time and space, a large number of plantlets can be produced starting from the single explants.
  • The production of exact copies of plants that produce particularly good flowers, fruits, or have other desirable traits. 
  • To quickly produce mature plants.



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