On 09/10/2021 09:50:34

mini-chromosome is a small chromatin-like structure resembling a chromosome and consisting of centromerestelomeres, and replication origins, but little additional genetic material. They replicate autonomously in the cell during cellular division. Mini chromosomes may be created by natural processes as chromosomal aberrations or by genetic engineering



Mini chromosomes can be either linear or circular pieces of DNA. By minimizing the amount of unnecessary genetic information on the chromosome and including the basic components necessary for DNA replication (centromere, telomeres, and replication sequences), molecular biologists aim to construct a chromosomal platform that can be utilized to insert or present new genes intohost cell.

Production of chromosomes:

Producing minichromosomes by genetic engineering techniques involves two primary methods, the de novo (bottom-up) and the top-down approach

Use of mini chromosomal technology in plants:

In plants, the telomere sequence is conserved, which implies that this strategy can be utilized to successfully construct additional minichromosomes in other plant species.

The use of minichromosomes as a means for generating more desirable crop traits is actively being explored. Major advantages include the ability to introduce genetic information which is highly compatible with the host genome. This eliminates the risk of disrupting various important processes such as cell division and gene expression. With continued development, the future for use of minichromosomes may make a huge impact on the productivity of major crops.

The minichromosome maintenance protein complex (MCM) is a DNA helicase essential for genomic DNA replication. Eukaryotic MCM consists of six gene products, Mcm2–7, which form a heterohexamer. As a critical protein for cell division, MCM is also the target of various checkpoint pathways, such as the S-phase entry and S-phase arrest checkpoints. Both the loading and activation of MCM helicase are strictly regulated and are coupled to cell growth cycles. Deregulation of MCM function has been linked to genomic instability and a variety of carcinomas.

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