Human being employ language as an aid t do things like speaking, writing, reading, and greeting everyday life. There are many ways of communication like speaking and writing. Another purpose of communication is to build social relationships to survive in society. There are many differences in society in terms of age, gender, status, and ethics. These differences are the biggest challenge in dealing with the situation because it is very important to use proper words while communication. Human Being generally not able to say what exactly they mean to communicate. To maintain socially good relationship ways or strategies like politeness is required to achieve the required result from communication.
Politeness plays a very important role in communication. It is more important than etiquette. Politeness is different in different cultures. In some areas, politeness can be calm and composed for one but may be rude to others. It is necessary in academics also as it helps in smooth functioning in teaching and learning.
What is Politeness?
Crystal (1997: 297) believes that politeness, in Sociolinguistics and Pragmatics, is a term that signifies linguistic features related to norms of social behavior, in relation to notions such as courtesy, good relations, respect, and distance. Such features involve using a specific discourse marker (please), an appropriate tone of voice, and a tolerable form of address (e.g. intimate vs. distant pronoun choice, or first vs. last name).
Types of Politeness
There are different types politeness such as Distance, Deferential, and Camaraderie.
Distance politeness says that civilized human strategy that is similar to that of other animals. Animals make their boundary with actions and behavior whereas human makes boundaries by using symbols and sign.
Deferential politeness is something that is adopted by culture that avoid the dangers of conflict. Mostly observed in Asian Countries.
Camaraderie politeness is only about positive interaction and connection, being open and likable means being attractive and adorable. There are so many factors that influence the level of politeness like power, distance, rank .
Age difference also plays an important role in showing different levels of politeness and mainly affects formality. Countries like Japan makes it compulsory for older people to speak how young people speak and young people have to be very polite with older people while speaking.
Gender also plays an important role in measuring the politeness. Its very common that women suppose to be very polite as compared to men. It is said that women have greater tendencyas compared to men to maintain politeness by proper use of words and behavior. Women use shows more positivity while communicating where as men did not show such tendency.
Social distance also affect politeness in communication. Basically depends on how familiar the communicators are with each other. If they are more acquainted more impolite they will be while communicating. Situation wise also politeness matters both in formal and informal situation. In formal situation language and behavior is more polite as compare to informal situation where language and behavior will be acquainted as per familiar speaking and behavior style.
politeness is not only expressed in speech or speech as it can be effectively expressed through silence as well. This is efficient because without expressing the words a person can achieve certain communicative goals, which may have a significant impact on the interlocutor. In this case, the interlocutor in question captures the message by concluding, namely a process that results in the interpretation of silent behavior. Eye contact and gestures using body organs can also express politeness with or without verbal expression.
The use of polite language should be applied by people in everyday conversation because this can bring up an attitude of respect and respect, as well as build a good impression on ourselves and the people we represent. Politeness is important because it shows the listener or reader that we value and respect them, and changing or softening our speech is less compelling. Politeness is also needed for academic purposes so that the teaching and learning process runs well.
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